##### How to find out when you’ll get it, and how to fill any gaps.

The idea of working until I’m nearly 70 fills me with dread! I hope I don’t have to, and any early retirement will be down to personal pensions, investments and savings.

But once I do hit my late 60s, the State Pension will be a vital source of funds. In fact, knowing I’ll get it could free up other funds to perhaps allow me to stop working much earlier.

Seeing as it’s decades away, it might seem pointless to care about it now. But there are important questions to understand. Not just how much it’ll be and what age I’d be getting it, but will I even be eligible?

There’s confusing and misleading information out there (from pretty major websites too) so I’ll hopefully answer all of these questions and more in this article so you’ll know what you need to do to get the most money possible.

## When can you get the State Pension?

To start, let’s go back to basics. The State Pension is a guaranteed weekly income paid to you when you reach State Pension age. You can of course retire earlier if you have other income sources or other pensions, but you don’t get *this* cash until you hit the State Pension age.

The traditional age of 65 for men and 60 for women is sadly behind us. It’s now 66 for men and women (the latter really missed out in the years leading up to this levelling out).

The age then continues to rise, first to 67 between 2026 and 2028, impacting those born after 1960.

The next increase is to 68 years old. This latter change is meant to happen around 2044 (adding a year for those born around 1977), but could occur eight years earlier between 2037 and 2039 (meaning those born after 1970).

Though of course, these ages could – and probably will – change again. I imagine when it’ll be 69 when my time comes. And it’s anticipated that anyone currently under 30 will have to wait until 70 years old to get the payments. indeed, in 30 years there might not even be a State Pension anymore!

## Finding out your State Pension age

The way to find out what the date will be (as things stand now) is for you is to use the State Pension age tool on the Gov.UK website.

You simply enter your date of birth and whether you’re male or female (gender only makes a difference to people already in their mid-60s) and ta-da, you’ll see your State Pension age.

*Quick note – as the earlier increase to 68 is just a proposal it’s not been factored into the calculator, so add a year if you fit that eight-year range(born after 1970) to be on the safe side.*

## Why you should care about your State Pension *now*

So you now know when you’ll get it, and it could well be a long time until you reach State Pension age. Hey, for me it’s at *least* another 25 years! So we can forget about it until then, right?

No – there are important reasons I care now, and you should too.

### It reduces how much you’ll need in your other pensions

The full amount from the State Pension (SP) might not seem much – currently just £185.15* a week. But that’s £9,627 odd a year. Until. You. Die. Live for 20 years after claiming it and it’s worth close to £200,000.

Say you’ve worked out you need £30,000 a year to live when you retire, the full State Pension means you’ll actually need to save enough to cover £20,000 a year from 67 / 68 etc. That’s a much easier (and less scary) total to target.

** How much you get can get a little complicated so this is the most. I won’t go into detail here but you’ll get less if you ever “contracted out”. Or if you would have been better off under the older system it’s possible you might get small top-ups when you retire. *

### You’re not automatically entitled to it

But, you don’t automatically qualify for the SP. You might think it just starts when you hit State Pension age, but you’re wrong. You need to make at least 10 years of National Insurance contributions to qualify. Less than this and you won’t get anything.

You generally make National Insurance contributions through your pay, or you might get National Insurance credits through things like child benefit, jobseekers allowance, carers allowance and maternity leave.

### You might not get the full amount

That 10-year figure is the minimum. You’ll need as many as 35 years of NI contributions to get the full amount (though depending on your age it could be a little less – more on this later). It’s well worth making sure you have made or will make enough contributions to reach this number.

If you only qualify for two-thirds of the full amount (roughly what you’d get if you only made 24 out of 35 years of full contributions) then you’d be around £3,209 worse off a year. That will make a difference.

I’ve detailed further down the article how you can check your current status and how much you’d get (at current figures).

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### You might have missed some years

If you’ve been working or on certain benefits each year since school or University (or even before) then it’s likely you’ll have each year so far marked on your record as full. But if for any reason you took time out – a gap year perhaps – you’ll have a missing year.

And the closer you get to retirement, the bigger the impact any missed year will have on how much you get. But if the missed year is within the last six years you can voluntarily pay to top it up.

Of course if you’ve got plenty of years to catch up you might not need to do this, but it’s worth thinking about if you’re approaching the time you’d like to stop working.

#### How to top up as far back as 2006

Until 31 July 2023 (extended from the original 5 April 2023 deadline) the six-year limit is extended by an extra 11 years for men born since April 1951 and women after April 1953. If that’s you, you can now top up as far back as April 2006.

There’s obviously a cost to any top-up – roughly £824 per year if you do it this year. That’s obviously a sizeable amount. But for each year you add now, you’ll break even if you claim the State Pension for at least three years. So claim it for four years and you’ll be better off.

If you’re self-employed then you’d only need to pay £164ish per missing year to make it a qualifying credit. More on the different rates and how to make these payments here.

### You won’t want to be making contributions if you retire early

Do you want to keep working until you actually reach the State Pension age? If you can afford to retire earlier it makes sense to ensure you don’t have to keep making (voluntary) contributions when your income is low, in order to get the max SP available to you.

Say you’re aiming to quit in 10 years at 55 years old but have 23 years of contributions so far. You’ll either need to change your goal to 57 years old, or you’ll need to make voluntary contributions (or keep working) for another 2 years to reach the magic number of 35 years of contributions.

## How many qualifying years do you need?

Under the new system (introduced in April 2016), you qualify for the State Pension after 10 years of contributions and will get the full rate after 35 years of contributions (this is for men born after 1951 and women born after 1953).

But as I mentioned above it’s not going to be 35 years for everyone – it could actually be less. This is despite pretty much every major newspaper and personal finance website stating it’s now 35 years for everyone. It’s not! And I’m proof of this.

You see, if you started making contributions before April 2016 – which is going to be most people in their late 20s and some younger – the total number of years is based on a mix of the new and old systems.

For me I only need to make a total of 30 years of full National Insurance contributions. For my wife it’s 32 years. This is despite the fact we’ve both already contributed the same number of years so far (22 years).

A few years ago I called up the HMRC helpline to find out why this was (and why so many sources reported a blanket 35 years). The answer wasn’t massively clear, but it might be down to me being a little older than her, or me earning more in some of those years. Whatever the reason, we’re both examples of people who need to pay less than 35 years – so it could well be the same for you.

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## How to check your State Pension record

There’s a way to check how much State Pension you’ll get when you retire, based on your current record and also if you continue paying in. You’ll also be able to see if there are any gaps.

It’s a five-minute job well worth doing so you know if you’re on track, or whether you need to take action now – and if you’re over 40 you may well need to fill in any missing gaps.

You need to request a State Pension forecast. It’s easy and doesn’t take long. You need a Government Gateway ID, and it might take five to 10 minutes to set this up. You need to validate your identity using your passport or a recent payslip, but once sorted you can find out how many years you still need to contribute to get the full amount. For me it was 7 years.

In the same system (but annoyingly not on the same page) you can check your National Insurance record. You’ll see how many years you’ve already made full contributions (as mentioned this was 23 years for me so far). Add together those figures and you’ll get the total number of years that YOU need to pay.

This page will also tell you how many more years you have left to make contributions – i.e. before you reach the State Pension age.

So I now know that I’ve 23 full qualifying years and I’ve 25 years to contribute another 7 full years. Or in other words, I *could* stop working in 7 years and still get the full State Pension when I hit 68.

If you only made 24 out of 35 full years of contributions then would you get 24 / 35 * £9660.86 a year? If you had x full years and x>=10 then would you get x / 35 * £9660.86 a year?

and x <=35

Hi Andy

How do we go about deciding how much we need to pay and then how do we pay any top-ups?

Hi Andy,

I’m 40 years old, so assuming that I will get my state pension from 2050 when I turn 68. This leaves me with 28 years to pay into the system to get my full state pension, having checked my pension summary it says that I need to contribute another 16 years before 5 April 2049 (having already 16 years of full NI contributions). I’ve got 2 years where my NI is not full. My question now is if I make up for those 2 years and pay in another 16 years (which would be 2038), am I running a risk that I ‘overpay’ from 2038 as I would be paying NI (assuming I’m still working then) but my state pension would not increase further (apart from inflation adjustments)?

Thanks in advance for any light you can shed on my query!

Best Regards,

Chris

No, I’d say if you think you’ll work those 16 years or be happy to voluntarily pay after this, you’ve plenty of time to reach it. Yes you’re right, if you pay more than the 35 (or however many years) required you don’t get any extra State Pension.

Hi Andy, I have 5 years missing on my record, due to ill health but I didn’t claim anything as I thought my husband was earning too much at the time. We didn’t consider at the time then impact it would have on my pension. I am unlikely to work again and was wondering if it was possible to set up a company, declare through self assessment earnings under 6K then voluntary pay N.I. at the reduced rate? Is this possible technically? Or is this fraud, unethical or just no, not a chance?

Hi Andy, I have paid my NI contributions for about 34 years with just a few months missing intermittently due to being unemployed on a few occasions. Once i have paid for 35 yesrs in total will i get some adjustment to my subsequent NI contributions ? Thanks

Hi Paul, no, you’ll keep paying them as normal until you stop working

I’m retired and receiving state pension. I had 37 years in NI but I don’t receive a full pension because I was contracted out. My pension forecasts just told me how many stamps I had and never mentioned that I might not get a full pension. I never saw my cope amount. I stopped working a few years before claiming my pension in 2016 and I asked DWP if I could make further contributions to achieve full pension but they said no, I could only make contributions going forwards, not backwards and didn’t give any explanation beyond this. I was surprised because I knew there was a 6 years back rule. Can I make contributions now under the extended rule? Will it depend on gaps in my record after 2006?

I am confused by what you said about how many years you and your wife have to contribute.

My forecast says I have 32 qualifying years, yet underneath that shows me another 7 years to contribute to get the full pension amount payable. I started work in 1985. So why isn’t it saying I only need another 3 years to get to 35 qualifying years? Or where do I find out if I have already paid enough?

Thanks for the brilliant articles. Very useful 😀

Richard.

Did you ever “contract out”? This complicates matters and might mean some of your qualifying years don’t count… Click to see your National Insurance record on the same site and it’ll tell you year by year.

Hi Andy,

After I left my comment I went back and yes, at some point my company pension was contracted out and I do have a COPE element to my pension, so you are right, it would appear more complicated due to that.

Thanks for the help 😀

I’m retired and receiving state pension. I had 45 years in NI but I don’t receive a full pension because I was contracted out. (NHS) My pension forecasts just told me how many stamps I had and never mentioned that I might not get a full pension. I do have NHS pension but not sure how it is affected by the contracting out. Btw I did not have a choice re contracting out it was either pay into the NHS pension scheme or not. I worked fT till retirement in June 2019. I asked DWP if I could make further contributions to achieve full pension but they said no, as I had already reached retirement age. I did get extra years that counted from 2016 to 2019 but I could only make contributions going forwards, I assume if I continued working but they never explained how many years I was short. The calculation they gave me is very complicated. My pension was calculated using the old scheme even though I retired after the new SP was introduced – I still cannot make sense of it, but I do have the letter they sent me. Can I make contributions now under the extended rule? Or am I stuck in catch 22 – I already lost 5 years pension due to pension age changes for women and feel very targeted.

I was born in 1962 and need 46 years of contributions to get the full state pension

It’s because you were in a contracted-out works pension scheme. You and your employet paid a lower rate of NI, so you need some extra years to make up the diff.

There is a super guide about this, written by Steve Webb, the formet state pensions minister: https://www.lcp.uk.com/media-centre/2022/02/why-is-money-being-deducted-from-my-state-pension-new-lcp-guide-answers-the-most-commonly-asked-question-in-pensions/